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D.C. Circuit Vacates Hydroelectric Dam License Over Deficiencies with the Clean Water Act Water Quality Certification

D.C. Circuit Vacates Hydroelectric Dam License Over Deficiencies with the Clean Water Act Water Quality Certification
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By Rebecca Andrews

The United States Circuit Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia recently determined that the State of Maryland could not retroactively waive its previously-issued water quality certification for a license for a hydroelectric dam. The license was vacated and remanded to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). [Waterkeepers Chesapeake v. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 56 F.4th 45 (D.C. Cir. Dec. 20, 2022).]


Constellation Energy Generation, LLC is the operator of Conowingo Dam, a hydroelectric dam on the Susquehanna River in Maryland. In 2014, Constellation Energy submitted a request for a water quality certification under Section 401 of the Clean Water Act to Maryland’s Department of the Environment. After years of negotiation, public notice, commenting, and a public hearing, Maryland issued a section 401(a)(1) water quality certification in 2018.

The water quality certification required Constellation to develop a plan to reduce the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in the dam’s discharge, improve fish and eel passage, make changes to the dam’s flow regime, control trash and debris, provide for monitoring, and undertake other measures for aquatic resource and habitat protection. Constellation challenged the certification and its conditions, calling the conditions unprecedented and extraordinary.

As part of settling Constellation’s challenge to the water quality certification, Maryland and Constellation agreed to submit a series of proposed license articles to FERC for incorporation into the dam’s license. If those articles were incorporated into the license, Maryland agreed to conditionally waive any and all rights it had to issue a water quality certification. FERC issued a 50-year license that included the proposed license articles.

Several environmental groups, collectively referred to as “Waterkeepers,” filed a petition for rehearing with FERC. They argued that Maryland had no authority to retroactively waive its 2018 water quality certification and that FERC therefore exceeded its authority under the federal Clean Water Act by issuing a license that failed to incorporate the conditions of that certification. FERC rejected Waterkeepers’ argument and denied the petition. Waterkeepers petitioned for review.

The D.C. Circuit’s Decision

Retroactive Waiver Argument

The court first considered Waterkeepers’ argument that the Clean Water Act does not allow a retroactive waiver of the kind Maryland has attempted. In opposition, FERC argued that Section 401 of the Clean Water Act does not prevent a state from affirmatively waiving its authority to issue a water quality certification. The court rejected FERC’s argument, reasoning that the Clean Water Act provides two routes for a state to waive a water quality certification: failure or refusal to act on a request for certification, within a reasonable period of time. If a state has not granted a certification or has not failed or refused to act on a certification request, section 401(a)(1) prohibits FERC from issuing a license. Because the state acted when it issued the water quality certification in 2018, the subsequent backtracking of that issuance through a settlement agreement was not a failure or refusal to act. In the end, the court agreed with Waterkeepers.


The court next considered what the appropriate remedy should be. FERC argued that the appropriate remedy would be to remand the license back to FERC without vacating the license. This would allow the license to remain in place while a new permit was issued and would avoid disruptive consequences that result from vacating a license with environmental protections in place. The decision whether to vacate depends on the seriousness of the license’s deficiencies and the disruptive consequences of an interim change that may itself be changed.

The court determined vacatur was appropriate. First, the license had serious deficiencies because FERC issued it without statutory authority. Second, disruptions to the environmental protections can be avoided through issuance of interim, annual licenses until a permanent license can be issued. Further, Waterkeepers’ brought the action for the very purpose of strengthening the environmental protections, and Waterkeepers agreed with vacatur. Finally, vacating the license would allow the administrative and judicial review to be completed after being interrupted by the settlement agreement.

Conclusion and Implications

This decision is another case reminding states and project proponents to proceed with caution when attempting to resolve disputes surrounding Section 401 water quality certifications. Under the Clean Water Act. The court’s opinion is available online here:$file/21-1139-1978279.pdf